Diabetes – Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Complications
Slow wound healing also increases the risk of infection. High blood sugar levels can affect blood circulation and damage the body’s nerves. In people with type 2 diabetes, this can lead to pain or a sensation of tingling or numbness in the hands and feet. This condition is known as neuropathy, and it can worsen over time and lead to more serious complications if a person does not get treatment for their diabetes. Patches of dark skin forming on the creases of the neck, armpit, or groin can also signify a higher risk of diabetes.
An illness or infection will usually trigger HHNS, which can require hospitalization. This sudden complication tends to affect older people. Keeping blood sugar levels under control is crucial for preventing some of these complications. The longer that blood sugar levels remain uncontrolled, the higher the risk of other health problems. Anyone can develop type 2 diabetes, but certain factors can increase a person’s risk.
Yeast infections tend to occur on warm, moist areas of the skin, such as the mouth, genital areas, and armpits.The affected areas are usually itchy, but a person may also experience burning, redness, and soreness. Recognizing the early signs of type 2 diabetes can allow a person to get a diagnosis and treatment sooner.
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Early signs and symptoms can include frequent urination, increased thirst, feeling tired and hungry, vision problems, slow wound healing, and yeast infections. Anyone who experiences possible signs and symptoms of diabetes should see a doctor for an evaluation, especially if they have other risk factors for developing this condition. The early detection and treatment of type 2 diabetes can improve a person’s quality of life and reduce the risk of severe complications. Having a support system that understands what it is like to have a diagnosis and live with type 2 diabetes is vital.
Whereas type 1 diabetes is characterized by the onset in young persons (average age at diagnosis = 14), type 2 diabetes usually develops in middle age or later. This tendency to develop later in life has given rise to the term “adult-onset diabetes,” although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in younger people is rising, making this term somewhat inaccurate and outdated.
In contrast to type 1 diabetes, symptoms often have a more gradual onset. Type 2 diabetes is associated with insulin resistance rather than the lack of insulin, as seen in type 1 diabetes. This often is obtained as a hereditary tendency from one’s parents. Insulin levels in these patients are usually normal or higher than average but the body’s cells are rather sluggish to respond to it.
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Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. This disease exists in all populations, but the prevalence varies greatly, ie, 1% in Japan, and greater than 40% in the Pima Indians of Arizona. In Caucasians, the figure is somewhere between 1-2% of the entire population. The high incidence of type 2 diabetes in certain groups such as the Pima Indians appears to be a relatively recent development that followed a change in the type of food intake (from relatively little food to plenty of food).
This “urbanization phenomenon” has been most carefully studied in non-white populations, but is probably ethnically and racially nonspecific. In other words, obesity tends to promote diabetes in those genetically predisposed regardless of where you live and what your racial background is. Type 2 diabetes tends to be fairly hereditary in contrast to type 1 diabetes.
The degree of obesity also seems to be a factor, with a larger percentage of diabetes developing in those who are more obese. Studies with identical twins showed that 90-100% of the time when diabetes developed in one it would also develop in the other compared with 50% in type 1 diabetes.
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Genetic predisposition seems to be the strongest factor. Obesity and high caloric intake seem to be another. Twenty percent of people with this type 2 diabetes have antibodies to their islet cells which are detectable in their blood resulting in the expected low levels of insulin, suggesting the possibility of incomplete islet cell destruction (see discussion about autoimmune diabetes in the type 1 diabetes section).
When doctors first discovered diabetes in the early 1900s, there were few options for treatment. It wasn’t until the 1990s that people with Type 2 diabetes had oral medications like metformin— still a mainstay of treatment for many people with diabetes. Insulin, necessary treatment for patients with Type 1 diabetes, remains one of the biggest medical discoveries to this day – is fatigue a symptom of diabetes.
Frederick Banting of Toronto, Canada, diabetes was a dreaded disease that led to certain death. A strict diet to minimize sugar intake, which sometimes caused death by starvation, was the most effective treatment, possibly buying patients a few more years to live. Banting and one of his colleagues were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their discovery in 1923.
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Even if Type 2 diabetes has no cure, it can be prevented and managed. People with the disease can control blood sugar with lifestyle changes and medication. When changes in diet and increased physical activity are not enough to control blood glucose levels, doctors will prescribe medications. These same medications, aside from insulin, are not used, however, to treat patients with Type 1 diabetes.
However, there are several different types, or classes, of medications available to treat Type 2 diabetes. Each controls blood sugar in different ways. Some people may take more than one medication to more effectively control sugar levels. Type 2 Diabetes Drug Classes Increase release of glucose through urination Increase insulin sensitivity of liver, fat and muscle cells Stimulate insulin production by the pancreas Slow the digestion of carbohydrates There are many medications to treat Type 2 diabetes, and typically they are organized into groups that represent the condition that they target.
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A new class of diabetes medications called sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors releases excess glucose in the body through urination. The FDA approved Invokana (canagliflozin), the first drug in the class, in 2013. Several others followed. But the agency has also released a number of warnings for serious side effects linked to these medications.
The first is urosepsis, a serious systemic blood infection that can be fatal. The second is pyelonephritis, a serious kidney infection. Pyelonephritis may also lead to a blood infection. Both types of infections require hospitalization and antibiotics. Additional FDA safety communications warned about kidney injury and diabetic ketoacidosis, a condition that occurs when too many toxins build up in the blood.
Biguanides are a class of drugs that work by making the body more sensitive to insulin. They also stop the liver from making glucose and releasing it into the blood. They may also make fat and muscle cells more sensitive to insulin. Currently, there is only one drug in this class available on the market: Glucophage (metformin).
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Since it has been around since the 1920s, its side effects are very well known. It became available in the U.S. in the 1990s. Many doctors are very comfortable prescribing it as a frontline medication or in combination with other medications. In fact, most combinations of oral medications contain metformin. Newer drugs also often test their effectiveness against metformin in clinical trials.
The FDA approved many of these drugs in the 1990s. The two most popular drugs in this class are Actos and Avandia. But these drugs were linked to serious side effects including bladder cancer and heart failure. It has been one of the most popular drugs in the United States for treating Type 2 diabetes since 2007.
The drug recently came under fire for causing an increased risk of congestive heart failure and its link to bladder cancer. The drug’s maker, Takeda, paid $2.37 billion to settle thousands of lawsuits by people who claimed Actos caused their bladder cancer. This drug comes from the same controversial class of drugs like Actos and works in a similar way.
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A number of countries in Europe stopped selling the drug and banned it. Although Avandia is not banned in the United States, the product information for the drug includes warnings about its risks. TZD side effects may include: Bone fractures Macular edema Liver failure Heart failure Sinus infection Sore throat Fatigue Muscle pain Headache Skin rashes Hypoglycemia These drugs stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin.
The FDA approved the first of these drugs in the 1980s. There are several well-known Type 2 combination diabetes drugs that include sulfonylureas as one component. These work to decrease blood glucose levels by stimulating insulin release by the beta cells in the pancreas (diabetic coma symptoms). Pancreatic beta cells are the cells primarily responsible for releasing insulin.
Slowing the digestive process of starches and sugars slows down the rate that glucose enters the bloodstream. These drugs slow the digestion of sugar. Because these medications affect the digestive system, the side effects of nausea and flatulence are common. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are the least effective medications for lowering blood sugar and are rarely used in the United States.
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Amylin analogs also have a modest effect on blood sugar and are injected with a dosing pen. The only product available is called pramlintide. These drugs keep the hormone incretin from being broken down, stimulating insulin production and slowing digestion. infant diabetes symptoms. Popular brand names are Januvia, Onglyza, and Tradjenta. Generic names are sitagliptin, saxagliptin, and linagliptin.
Everyone with Type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day. However, patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes sometimes need to take insulin as well, when oral medications taken along with diet and exercise, are no longer enough to control the disease on their own. Some reasons why people with Type 2 may need to start taking insulin, even if just temporarily, often involve other health conditions, injury, medication use, or any other physiological change that can cause an individual’s body to become unable to produce enough insulin.
The abdomen is the preferred injection site due to a more consistent absorption of insulin occurring in this region. However, the location for injections should be rotated regularly to avoid a condition called lipodystrophy, or erosion of the fat beneath the skin. Other popular injection sites include the thigh and the arm.
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However, there is an inhaled version of the drug sold under the brand name Afrezza. This is a powder that is breathed in just before a meal because the insulin is rapid-acting. diabetes wiki. Doses of insulin vary by patient. How much insulin a patient requires daily depends on several factors, including Weight Eating habits Exercise levels Other illnesses Level of insulin resistance (in Type 2 patients) In patients with Type 2 diabetes, insulin may be stopped if temporary situations necessitating its use are resolved, or sometimes with weight loss, exercise or other lifestyle changes.
There are four different types of insulin that work differently for patients with diabetes — rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting. Rapid-acting and short-acting insulins are often used in combination with longer-acting insulins. Both rapid- and short-acting insulins are taken shortly before meals (usually about 30 minutes prior) to cover the rise in blood glucose levels that results from eating – diabetes and heart disease symptoms.